PHYLOGENOMICS AND MOLECULAR EAVOLUTION OF POLYOMAVIRUSES
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2006;577:46-59
Crandall KA, Perez-Losada M, Christensen RG, McClellan DA, Viscidi RP
Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah, USA
We provide in this chapter an overview of the basic steps to reconstruct evolutionary relationships through standard phylogeny estimation approaches as well as network approaches for sequences more closely related. We discuss the importance of sequence alignment, selecting models of evolution, and confidence assessment in phylogenetic inference. We also introduce the reader to a variety of software packages used for such studies. Finally, we demonstrate these approaches throughout using a data set of 33 whole genomes of polyomaviruses. A robust phylogeny of these genomes is estimated and phylogenetic relationships among the polyomaviruses determined using Bayesian and maximum likelihood approaches. Furthermore, population samples of SV40 are used to demonstrate the utility of network approaches for closely related sequences. The phylogenetic analysis suggested a close relationship among the BK viruses, JC viruses, and SV40 with a more distant association with mouse polyomavirus, monkey polomavirus (LPV) and then avian polyomavirus (BFDV).